Celsus (/ˈsɛlsəs/; Hellenistic Greek: Κέλσος, Kélsos) was a 2nd-century Greek philosopher and opponent of early Christianity. Jesus claims to be born of a virgin in the town of Bethlehem. CELSUS (c. A.D. 178), an eclectic Platonist and opponent of Christianity known mainly through the reputation of his work, The True Word (or Account; aX r1Ot s Xh yos), brought to light in 248 by Origen who in his Against Celsus quotes, paraphrases and reproduces about nine-tenths of it. Instead, Celsus insisted that the men and animals had a common origin. But we recognise in each state the existence of another national organization founded by the Word of God, and we exhort those who are mighty in word and of blameless life to rule over Churches. His work as a whole has been lost, but when the third century theologian Origen sought to answer Celsus' charges in a work appropriately called Against Celsus, he preserved most of Celsus' criticisms. Captured by Marie-Lan Nguyen / Wikimedia Commons Most people are at least somewhat familiar with Jesus’ miracles as described in the Bible. [11] Celsus wrote at a time when Christianity was being persecuted. Celsus Christianity Previous answers to this question 19: 12 3 2 0 2 Based on the reading of Celsus On the True Doctrine, choose 4 arguments of Celsus against the Christianity that best represent Roman and/or philosophical world-views and values. [4][7] Origen's work has survived and thereby preserved Celsus' work with it. Let no one come to us who has been instructed, or who is wise or prudent (for such qualifications are deemed evil by us); but if there be any ignorant, or unintelligent, or uninstructed, or foolish persons, let them come with confidence. Celsus's own beliefs, the "true doctrine" referenced in his title, is that of Platonism which from a modern materialist perspective has its own issues of supernatural and thus … θής, Logos Alēthēs), which survives exclusively in quotations from it in Contra Celsum, a refutation written in 248 by Origen of Alexandria. Celsus had written a critique of Christianity called The True Word, and Origen was asked to respond to his charges. … Information on Celsus. Celsus condemned the Christians for gathering in secret in order to practice, and. Origen considered this a fabricated story. Celsus divided the work into two sections, the one in which objections are put in the mouth of a Jewish interlocutor and the other in which Celsus speaks as the pagan philosopher that he is. [30] It is not known how many were Christians at the time of Celsus (the Jewish population of the empire may have been about 6.6-10% in a population of 60 million to quote one reference). The first point in Celsus’ argument against the biblical truth is the origin of the Jewish people and Christian faith. Instead, he was an "inclusive" or "qualitative" monotheist, as opposed to the Jewish "exclusive" or "quantitative" monotheism;[6] historian Wouter Hanegraaff explains that "the former has room for a hierarchy of lower deities which do not detract from the ultimate unity of the One. The excellent reconstruction and translation, together with a perfect introduction, by R. Joseph Hoffmann, reads like a modern text. He wrote, “Christians entered into secret associations with each other contrary to law” (Celsus 1.1). So that Jesus himself does not deny that these works at least are not at all divine, but are the acts of wicked men; and being compelled by the force of truth, he at the same time not only laid open the doings of others, but convicted himself of the same acts. If they refuse to render due service to the gods, and to respect those who are set over this service, let them not come to manhood, or marry wives, or have children, or indeed take any share in the affairs of life; but let them depart hence with all speed, and leave no posterity behind them, that such a race may become extinct from the face of the earth. Verlag Herder, Freiburg u.a. We shall now proceed to the next statement of Celsus, and examine it with care: "If in obedience to the traditions of their fathers they abstain from such victims, they must also abstain from all animal food, in accordance with the opinions of Pythagoras, who thus showed his respect for the soul and its bodily organs. Or, on the other hand, if they will take wives, and bring up children, and taste of the fruits of the earth, and partake of all the blessings of life, and bear its appointed sorrows (for nature herself hath allotted sorrows to all men; for sorrows must exist, and earth is the only place for them), then must they discharge the duties of life until they are released from its bonds, and render due honour to those beings who control the affairs of this life, if they would not show themselves ungrateful to them. [29] As for their opinions regarding their sacred mission and exclusive holiness, Celsus responds by deriding their insignificance, comparing them to a swarm of bats, or ants creeping out of their nest, or frogs holding a symposium round a swamp, or worms in conventicle in a corner of the mud. But if he come down among men, he must undergo a change, and a change from good to evil, from virtue to vice, from happiness to misery, and from best to worst. And this service is at once necessary and right. Celsus on the True Doctrine: A Discourse Against the Christians: Celsus: Amazon.com.mx: Libros Celsus's work may be divided as follows: a preface, an attack on Christianity from the point of view of Judaism, an attack on Christianity from the point of view of philosophy, a refutation of Christian teachings in detail, and an appeal to Christians to adopt paganism. God is good, and beautiful, and blessed, and that in the best and most beautiful degree. [9], Celsus seems to have been interested in Ancient Egyptian religion,[10] and he seemed to know of Hellenistic Jewish logos-theology, both of which suggest The True Doctrine was composed in Alexandria. "[25] Celsus shows himself familiar with the story of Jewish origins. However, Celsus' harshest criticism was reserved for Christians, who "wall themselves off and break away from the rest of mankind". And none fight better for the king than we do. [12] Origen indicates that Celsus was an Epicurean living under the Emperor Hadrian. | download | Z-Library. [1][2][3] He is known for his literary work, On The True Doctrine (or Discourse, Account, Word; Hellenistic Greek: Λόγος Ἀληθής, Logos Alēthēs),[4][5] which survives exclusively in quotations from it in Contra Celsum, a refutation written in 248 by Origen of Alexandria. And while thus speaking, if they see one of the instructors of youth approaching, or one of the more intelligent class, or even the father himself, the more timid among them become afraid, while the more forward incite the children to throw off the yoke, whispering that in the presence of father and teachers they neither will nor can explain to them any good thing, seeing they turn away with aversion from the silliness and stupidity of such persons as being altogether corrupt, and far advanced in wickedness, and such as would inflict punishment upon them; but that if they wish (to avail themselves of their aid,) they must leave their father and their instructors, and go with the women and their playfellows to the women's apartments, or to the leather shop, or to the fuller's shop, that they may attain to perfection;--and by words like these they gain them over.". The remarks which we have made not only answer the statements of Celsus regarding the superintending spirits, but anticipate in some measure what he afterwards brings forward, when he says: "Let the second party come forward; and I shall ask them whence they come, and whom they regard as the originator of their ancestral customs. It is the nature of a mortal, indeed, to undergo change and remoulding, but of an immortal to remain the same and unaltered. Indians, Persians, Odrysians, Samothracians, Eleusinians, Hyperboreans, Galactophagoi, Druids, and Getae), and instead blames Moses for the corruption of the ancient religion: "the goatherds and shepherds who followed Moses as their leader were deluded by clumsy deceits into thinking that there was only one God, [and] without any rational cause ... these goatherds and shepherds abandoned the worship of many gods". Who, then, would make choice of such a change? Those who are ambitious of ruling we reject; but we constrain those who, through excess of modesty, are not easily induced to take a public charge in the Church of God. [3] On The True Doctrine is the earliest known comprehensive criticism of Christianity. Since accuracy was essential to his refutation of The True Doctrine,[22] most scholars agree that Origen is a reliable source for what Celsus said. It was written between about 175 and 177, shortly after the death of Justin Martyr(who was possibly the … It was said that Jesus was born to a virgin and God himself. [6], Celsus was the author of a work titled On The True Doctrine (Logos Alēthēs). On the contrary to what the Christian religion believes Celsus says that Jesus was born to a mother who was a spinner, and his legitimate father a Roman soldier, Panthera (Celsus pg. Further, Celsus argues that Christian doctrine twisted the Greek concept of immortality of the soul into the resurrection. [26][clarification needed] Conceding that Christians are not without success in business (infructuosi in negotiis), Celsus wants them to be good citizens, to retain their own belief but worship the emperors and join their fellow citizens in defending the empire. Celsus views Christianity as, thus, a conspicuous and obnoxious species of internal flight from the order and reality of the great civic world, so that one will likely find its adherents skulking, rodent- or worm-like, in the dark corners of the worldly house. If that, then, is a laudable custom, how much more so, that while others are engaged in battle, these too should engage as the priests and ministers of God, keeping their hands pure, and wrestling in prayers to God on behalf of those who are fighting in a righteous cause, and for the king who reigns righteously, that whatever is opposed to those who act righteously may be destroyed!" 19th Century engraving of Flavius Josephus by William Whiston Bust of 2nd Century Philosopher. Yet he further criticizes Christian practices as alien, and by extension, a threat to traditional Roman culture. Origen wrote Contra Celsum at the request of his patron, a wealthy Christian named Ambrose, who insisted that a Christian needed to write a response to Celsus. And this we do in obedience to the injunction of the apostle, "I exhort, therefore, that first of all, supplications, prayers, intercessions, and giving of thanks, be made for all men; for kings, and for all that are in authority;" and the more any one excels in piety, the more effective help does he render to kings, even more than is given by soldiers, who go forth to fight and slay as many of the enemy as they can. θής), which survives exclusively in Origen's quotations from it in Contra Celsum.This work, c. 177 is the earliest known comprehensive attack on Christianity. Perhaps the most famous… Main Article Primary Sources (1) Celsus, On the True Doctrine: A Discourse Against the Christians (c. 175) Christianity is for hysterical women, children and idiots. On the contrary to what the Christian religion believes Celsus says that Jesus was born to a mother who was a spinner, and his legitimate father a Roman soldier, Panthera (Celsus pg. [15][16] In addition, Celsus addressed the miracles of Jesus, holding that "Jesus performed his miracles by sorcery (γοητεία)":[17][18][19], O light and truth! [6], Celsus initiated a critical attack on Christianity, ridiculing many of its dogmas. As an anti-Christian Greek philosopher, Celsus mounted an attack on Christianity. The Christians viewed these as idolatrous and inspired by evil spirits, whereas polytheists like Celsus thought of them as the works of the Daemons, or the god's ministers, who ruled mankind in his place to keep him from the pollution of mortality. However, a good God would not have created an evil which would “threaten to destroy his own offspring.”. Celsus believes that most of world cultures and … Celsus was a Greek writer in the second century who criticized Christianity as a threat to the stable communities and worldview that the "pagan" religious and social system sought to uphold. A second-century Roman philosopher credited with producing the first extensive written attack on the Christian faith . Download books for free. Celsus wrote at a time when Christianity was being persecuted and when there seems to have been more than one emperor. However, few are aware that extrabiblical texts also cite a supernatural aspect of Jesus’ ministry. He leaves Jews and Moses out of those he cites (Egyptians, Syrians, Let us see what Celsus further says of God, and how he urges us to the use of those things which are properly called idol offerings, or, still better, offerings to demons, although, in his ignorance of what true sanctity is, and what sacrifices are well-pleasing to God, he call them "holy sacrifices." Celsus had warned that Christianity itself was drawing people away from traditional religion and claimed that its growth would lead to a collapse of traditional, conservative values. Celsus's late second century "On the True Doctrine: A Discourse Against the Christians," is one of the most remarkable and thorough-going arguments ever written against the core beliefs and practices of Christianity, ancient or modern. Celsus On the True Doctrine. In the next place, Celsus urges us "to help the king with all our might, and to labour with him in the maintenance of justice, to fight for him; and if he requires it, to fight under him, or lead an army along with him." A Discourse Against the Christians | Celsus, R. Joseph Hoffman (transl.) 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Fast forward to 2019, nearly 1,900 years later and Celsus … After these points Celsus quotes some objections against the doctrine of Jesus, made by a very few individuals who are considered Christians, not of the more intelligent, as he supposes, but of the more ignorant class, and asserts that "the following are the rules laid down by them. [13][14], Celsus writes that "there is an ancient doctrine [archaios logos] which has existed from the beginning, which has always been maintained by the wisest nations and cities and wise men". After this it is superfluous for us to wish to offer a reply to such statements of Celsus as the following: "For why is it an evil to have been educated, and to have studied the best opinions, and to have both the reality and appearance of wisdom? One of the highlights of that time period is the vibrant interaction between Christians and their critics. Celsus’s charge touches on the so-called problem of evil. 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